Publication Ethics

Berkala Penelitian Hayati has publication ethics that describe the expected behaviour and duties of the scientific profession members. It is required to publish a paper in a peer-reviewed journal, Berkala Penelitian Hayati. Based on COPE's Best Practices Guidelines, Berkala Penelitian Hayati declared that "the followings" would agree on criteria of proper ethical behaviour for all parties engaged in publishing: the authors, the editors, the reviewers, the publisher, also the society.

Editor Responsibilities

Decisions on publication

The editor of a scholarly journal is exclusively and independently responsible for deciding which of the papers submitted to the journal should be published, and this decision is frequently made in collaboration with the appropriate organization (for society-owned or sponsored publications). The work's validity and value must support such judgments to academics and readers. The rules of the editorial board may guide the editor, and any legal restrictions in effect bind the editor at the time, such as libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may consult with other editors or reviewers (or society executives) in making these decisions.

Peer review evaluation

The editor ensures that the peer review process is fair, objective, and timely. In most cases, research publications must be reviewed by at least two external and independent reviewers, with the editor seeking additional perspectives as needed.

The editor must select reviewers who have relevant experience while considering the need for appropriate, inclusive, and varied representation. The editor must follow best practices to avoid selecting fraudulent peer reviewers. To determine whether bias exists, the editor must examine all declarations of potential conflicts of interest and self-citation proposals made by reviewers.

Fair play

The editor should evaluate papers based on their intellectual worth, regardless of the writers' race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic background, citizenship, or political ideology. When nominating potential editorial board members, the editor must consider the need for adequate, inclusive, and diverse representation. The journal's editorial rules should encourage openness and thorough, honest reporting, and the editor should ensure that peer reviewers and authors understand what is expected of them. The editor must use the publication's standard electronic submission mechanism for all journal interactions. In collaboration with the publisher, the editor must provide a clear system for appealing editorial decisions.

Metrics for journals

The editor shall not inflate any journal measure in order to influence the publication's rating. The editor, in particular, may not compel references to that (or any other) journal's articles to be included unless for legitimate academic reasons, and writers are not required to include references to the editor's articles or items and services in which the editor has a financial interest.


Unless otherwise agreed with the relevant authors and reviewers, the editor must keep all information submitted to the journal and all discussions with reviewers confidential. In exceptional circumstances and with the publisher's permission, the editor may share restricted material with editors of other journals to investigate suspected research misconduct. Unless the journal has an open peer-review procedure in place and/or reviewers have chosen to reveal their identities, the editor must protect reviewers' identities. Unpublished materials in a submitted paper may not be used in an editor's study unless the author expressly grants permission in writing. Confidential information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal gain.

Competing Interests Declaration

Any potential editorial conflicts of interest should be communicated to the publisher in writing before the editor's employment and then updated as new conflicts arise. Any published work must include a clear statement to that effect. The publisher may publish such affirmations in the journal. The editor shall not make decisions about papers that they have authored or written by family members or colleagues or about products or services in which the editor has a financial interest. In addition, any such submission must adhere to all of the journal's standard protocols. Peer review must be conducted independently of the author/editor and their research organizations.

Observance of the Published Record

The editor should work with the publisher to protect the integrity of the published record by investigating and analyzing known or suspected misbehavior (research, publishing, reviewer, and editorial) (or society). In general, such procedures will involve contacting the author of the manuscript or paper, giving appropriate consideration to the specific complaint or allegations, and sending additional messages to relevant universities and research organizations. The editor must also correctly use the publisher's detection mechanisms for wrongdoing, such as plagiarism. When confronted with compelling evidence of wrongdoing, an editor should collaborate with the publisher (and/or society) to ensure the immediate publication of a correction, retraction, statement of concern, or other correction to the record, as appropriate.

Reviewer Responsibilities

Participation in Editorial Decisions

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions, and editorial discussions with the author can assist the author in improving the manuscript. Peer review is an important part of formal academic communication and the scientific process. In addition to the specific ethics-related tasks outlined below, reviewers are expected to treat authors and their work in the same way they would like to be treated and follow proper reviewing etiquette. Any selected referee who believes they are unqualified to examine the research presented in a submission or recognizes that a timely review is impossible should contact the editor and decline participation in the review process.


Manuscripts for review must be treated as confidential documents. Reviewers must not share the review or any information about the work with anyone without the editor's permission, nor should they contact the authors directly. Some editors encourage discussion with colleagues or co-reviewing activities, but reviewers should first discuss this with the editor to ensure anonymity and proper credit for participants. Unpublished materials in a submitted paper may not be used in a reviewer's study unless the author expressly grants permission in writing. Confidential information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal gain.

Concern for Ethical Issues

A reviewer should look for any ethical issues in the article and bring them to the editor's attention, especially any significant resemblance or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper about which the reviewer has personal information. A citation should be provided for any claim that previously published observation, derivation, or argument.

Objectivity Standards and Competing Interests

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Reviewers should be aware of any personal biases and consider this when evaluating a manuscript. Personal attacks on the author are unsuitable. Referees should express their opinions clearly and provide evidence to support them. Before agreeing to examine a paper, reviewers should consult with the Editor if they have competitive, collaborative, or other ties or affiliations with any of the authors, corporations, or institutions associated with the articles. Assume a reviewer suggests to an author that citations be added to the reviewer's (or their collaborators') work. In that case, it must be done for genuine scientific reasons, rather than to boost the reviewer's citation count or the prominence of their work (or that of their associates).

Author Responsibilities

Authors must follow reporting guidelines, have access to and retain data, be original and plagiarism-free, avoid duplicating work in other journals, have authorship, acknowledge sources, disclose conflicts of interest, peer review, and have ethical clearance on hazardous, human, or animal subjects.

Reporting Expectations

Authors of original research papers should provide an accurate overview of their work and an objective assessment of its significance. The study's underlying data should be properly reported. A paper should include enough detail and references to enable others to replicate the work. Remarks that are fraudulent or willfully incorrect are unethical and should be avoided. Articles in review and professional publications should also be truthful and unbiased, and editorial 'opinion' works should be clearly labeled as such.

Data Retention and Access

Authors may be required to submit the research data supporting their publication for editorial review and/or to follow the open data guidelines of the journal. If possible, authors should be willing to allow public access to such data and keep such data for a reasonable number of years after publication. Authors should consult their journal's Author's Guide for more information.

Originality and Attribution of Sources

The writers should ensure that they have written original works and that if they have used the work and/or words of others, they have properly referenced or quoted them. It is always necessary to properly recognize the efforts of others. Authors should mention publications that had an impact on the reported work as well as provide context for the work within the larger scholarly record. Without the source's clear, written consent, information received privately, such as through conversation, correspondence, or discussion with other parties, shall not be used or reported. When necessary, that permission has been obtained. Plagiarism can take many forms, including 'passing off' another person's paper as the author's own, copying or paraphrasing major sections of another person's paper (without acknowledgment), and claiming findings from other people's studies. Plagiarism, in all of its forms, is unethical and unwelcome behavior.

Publication in Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Forms

In general, an author should not submit the same study's findings to more than one journal or primary publication. It is unethical and inappropriate to submit the same article to more than one journal simultaneously. In general, an author should not submit a previously published manuscript to another journal for consideration unless it is in the form of an abstract, part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or as an electronic preprint. Specific types of papers (e.g., clinical guidelines, translations) may be published in multiple journals if certain criteria are met. The authors and editors of the relevant journals must give their permission for secondary publication, containing the same facts and interpretation as the original paper. The initial reference must be cited in the secondary publication.


Without the author's express written consent of the work involved in these services, information received during confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, shall not be used.

Manuscript Authorship

Individuals who made significant contributions to the study's concept, design, implementation, or interpretation should be authors. Everyone who has contributed significantly should be listed as a co-author. Others who contributed to the work's substantive components (for example, language editing or medical writing) should be acknowledged in the acknowledgments section. The corresponding author ensures that the manuscript has appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors. The final version of the work has been reviewed and approved by all co-authors, and it has been submitted for publication. Writers are expected to carefully study the list and order of authors before submitting their work and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the initial submission. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider (at their discretion) adding, deleting, or rearranging authors after the article has been submitted, and any such request must be adequately flagged to the Editor. All authors must approve any such addition, deletion, or rearrangement. The work is owned collectively by the authors. Each author is responsible for thoroughly investigating and addressing any concerns about the accuracy or integrity of any work element.

Dangers and Human or Animal Test Subjects

If the study includes substances, techniques, or equipment that pose specific risks, the author must adequately disclose these in the article. Assume the research will involve the use of animal or human subjects. In that case, the author should include a statement in the paper stating that all procedures were carried out following applicable laws and institutional norms, and that they were authorized by the appropriate institutional committee(s). Authors should include a statement in their publication stating that informed consent for human subject experimentation was obtained. Private rights of human subjects must always be respected. In the case of human subjects, the author should ensure that the study was carried out under the World Medical Association's Code of Ethics (Declaration of Helsinki) for human experimentation. All animal experiments should adhere to the ARRIVE guidelines and be carried out by the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and related guidelines, or the EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, or the US Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and, where applicable, the Animal Welfare Act. Suppose an author wishes to include case details, other personal information, or photographs of patients or other people. In that case, the necessary consents, permissions, and releases must be obtained.

Competing Interests Declaration

The World Association of Medical Editors defines conflict of interest as "a divergence between an individual's private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities, such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual's behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests." All authors should disclose their work in their paper if they have any financial or personal ties to other people or organizations that could be perceived as unfairly influencing (biasing). All sources of financial support for the research and/or article preparation should be acknowledged, as should the sponsor's involvement (s), if any, in study design; data collection, analysis, and interpretation; report writing; and decision to submit the article for publication. It should be noted if the funding source(s) were not involved in any way. Employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other forms of support are all examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed. Conflicts of interest should be disclosed as soon as possible.

Notification of Critical Errors

When an author discovers a serious error or inaccuracy in their published work, it is the author's responsibility to contact the journal editor or publisher as soon as possible and work with the editor to withdraw or correct the article if the editor deems it necessary. Assume the editor or publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains an error. In that case, it is the author's responsibility to follow the editor's instructions, including providing any necessary evidence.

Image Continuity

It is not permitted to enhance, obscure, move, remove, or introduce a specific feature within a photograph. Changes to brightness, contrast, or color balance are permitted as long as they do not obscure or erase any information in the original. Image enhancement for clarity is permissible. On the other hand, manipulation for other purposes may be considered scientific or ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. Authors should adhere to the graphical image policy of the relevant journal, including the original images as additional material with the paper or depositing them in a suitable repository.

Transparency in Clinical Trials

Writers for relevant publications are expected to follow industry best practices in clinical trial registration and presentation, such as the CONSORT guidelines, as further specified in the relevant journal's policies.


Elsevier’s publishing ethics -